Monday, January 20, 2020

Irony in Oedipus the King Essay -- Oedipus the King Oedipus Rex

Irony in Oedipus the King      Ã‚   When Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King, he knew that his audience would have some idea as to the outcome, his tale being a Greek tragedy which follows a strict form. Not wanting to write a predictable, bland play, Sophocles used this knowledge to his advantage and created various situations in which dramatic irony plays a key role. Dramatic irony is present when the tragic truth is revealed to the audience before it is revealed to the characters within the story. Through this use of irony, Sophocles succeeds in telling a fresh tale. Even though the audience knows how the story will end, they are intrigued by the presence of irony. By crafting irony into his tale, Sophocles gives the reader a desire to see how Oedipus is going to mentally react to the events that are sure to transpire.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Oedipus is self-confident, intelligent, and strong willed. Ironically these are the very traits which bring about his tragic discovery.   Because of these traits Oedipus was able to solve the riddle given to him by the Sphinx.   When this riddle was solved he acquired great popularity and power.  Ã‚   He was then challanged into a riddle of his own where he had to find out the truth of his past and the fate of his future.   By solving this riddle he lost all the power and glory, left to be exiled and become a beggar in another land.   If Oedipus had not been so determined to escape and prevent the prophecy by the Oracle, he would not have fulfilled it. Possibly, he was doomed to fulfill the prophecy because he believed he could avoid it. Nevertheless, his fate was sealed by his actions of pride and determination. His pride of conquering the Sphinx led him to the marriage of Jocasta, his mother. Whe... ... truth, whereas when he blinded himself he knew the full truth of what the oracles had said. Sophocles successfully attained his objective in "Oedipus the King" through the use of dramatic irony.   Works Cited and Consulted: Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms, 7th ed. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1999. Ehrenberg, Victor. "Sophoclean Rulers: Oedipus." In Twentieth Century Interpretations of Oedipus Rex, edited by Michael J. O'Brien. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968. Sophocles. Oedipus Rex. Transl. by F. Storr. no pag. Available:   http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/browse-mixednew?tag=public&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&part=0&id=SopOedi Yaeger, Werner. "Sophocles' Master of Dramatic Irony." In Readings on Sophocles, edited by Don Nardo. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1997.   

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange â€Å"Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492† is a common expression used today about the discovery of the Americas. What happens after the discovery of the Americas? Transculturation. This is the mixing of cultures in which both sides change in one way or another (Murphy, 1-14-13). The Columbian Exchange happened when people from Europe and Africa settled into Latin America and the Caribbean after the discovery of the Americas. The Columbian Exchange brought over diseases to the Americas, plants and animals, and the exchange of silver.The colonization of the Americas made exchanging animals and plants happen daily. Sugar was one plant that was brought over. Sugar was brought over to Brazil from the coast of Africa (Crosby, 69). Towards the end of the 16th century, Brazil became the biggest producer of sugarcane. At first, sugar was only bought by the rich but over time it was an important crop in everyone’s day to day life. Sugar coul d be boiled down into concentrated, making it easy to fit in ships, causing it to become the cash crop for centuries (Chasteen, 24).Brazil was producing 57, 000 tons of sugar annually in 1610, in which the English started to produce sugar which drove the production down in Brazil (Crosby, 69). Sugar created harsh working environments and ended up having slaves do all of the work. Slaves were purchased and brought in from West Africa (Wolfe, 150). Maize, potatoes, tomatoes, and many other plants were added to European and Africa diets. Many crops that exist in European nations have come from the Americas during the Columbian Exchange.Tomatoes were grown in the Americas before they made their way to Italy. Italy is known for their food that uses tomatoes and many people think that the tomato originated in Italy. The tomato got brought back to Italy throughout the trips from the Americas. Maize was introduced to Asia in the 16th century, which was a factor for population growth in Asia (Crosby, 65). As Winn states â€Å"But not much of the Columbian exchange was not positive for the indigenous people of the Americas† (Winn, 43), most of the Columbian exchange was lop sided.Europeans and Africans got the better end of the Columbian exchange due to the fact that they transferred many of the diseases instead of receiving them. Along with plants, imported animals arrived in the America during Columbus’s second voyage in 1493 (Crosby, 75). Horses, dogs, pigs, cattle, chickens, sheep, and goats all arrived in the Americas in the 16th century. Pigs were the first animals to blow up, with 30,000 pigs in Cuba by 1514 (Crosby, 76). Cattle, like pigs, reproduced in great numbers and quickly adapted to the new environment.All of these animals were used some way or another to produce a profit. Skin became the biggest export from America to Europe after colonization to the America’s happened (Murphy, 1-23-13). The fat was used to produce animals and sheep were used to produce clothing (Murphy, 1-23-13). Horses gave Bernal Diaz the advantage in defeating the Aztec to claim Mexico. Cattle provided meat which would not have been there if it wasn’t for the colonization. The Spaniards realized that silver from the America’s could bring them indefinite money, while the silver lasted.There was virtually no silver being exported from the Americas to Europe before Columbus discovered the Americas. At the beginning of the 16th century, silver production in the Americas started to sky rocket due to the Spaniards discovering the benefits of silver. In the 1540’s, a silver mine located in Potosi, Peru was opened up by the Spaniards (Chasteen, 50). The town of Potosi blew up due to this new economic growth that was happening. The working environments were harsh; men had to carry pounds and pounds of silver down the mountain (Murphy, 1-28-13).From 1503-1660, 700 million pounds of silver gets exported from the Americas to Europe (Murphy, 1-28-13). The problem with silver is that it has boom and bust cycles, where one year silver may be at its all-time high and the next the economy takes a beating. The money being made was through the taxing of this silver. The exchange of silver brought the Americas and the rest of the world together. This was due to the trade that was happening with the silver. The crown in Spain received around 40 percent of all the silver profits (Wolfe, 139).The crown received this money due to the royal fifth or settlement of American taxes (Wolfe, 139). Around 30 percent of the silver was illegally traded to the crown did not receive that money (Murphy, 1-28-13). No food is able to grow at Potosi so all of it had to be imported from other countries. This created huge trade relations across the world. The food from Potosi would be imported from elsewhere because it was cheaper, causing the prices to rise in the Potosi economy (Wolfe, 139). In the early 1800’s, the silver ran ou t and the town of Potosi went down with it.This shows how much the Spaniards had an impact on the Americas, Peru in this instance. The diseases that Europe and Africa brought in during colonization to the Americas were the biggest negative impact of the Columbian Exchange. Diseases wiped out populations in the Americas. Native Americans had no immunity towards the diseases that were coming in. Diseases like smallpox, measles, malaria, plague, and many others were killing native people uncontrollably. In lower and upper Peru, the population declined from 5 million to less than 300 thousand in 1780-1790’s (Wolfe, 135).As shown in this quote by Winn â€Å"The result was the greatest demographic disaster in history† (Winn, 43), this epidemic effected wherever colonization happened in the Americas. The old world diseases were not intentionally spread to the Americas but were a side effect of transculturation. The Columbian exchange was a major factor in the Colonization of the Americas. New foods were exchanged between the Americas and Europe and Africa. Animals were also swapped during this exchange, which created economic opportunities.The finding of silver in Potosi helped Spain gain money through taxes. This was a boom and bust cycle which leads to Potosi becoming a ghost town. With colonization happening, diseases brought from the Europeans and Africans killed an uncountable amount of people in the Americas. The Columbian Exchange changed Latin America and the Caribbean fully. The real question is what would Latin America and the Caribbean be like if the Columbian Exchange never happened? Works Cited Chasteen, â€Å"Encounter,† in Born in Blood and Fire, pp. 11-42 (3rd ed), 25-53 (2nd).Chasteen, â€Å"The Colonial Crucible,† in Born in Blood, pp. 49-80 (3rd ed), 59-89 (2nd). Crosby, Alfred, â€Å"Old World Plants and Animals in the New World,† in The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1973), pp. 64-121. Wolfe, Eric, â€Å"Iberians in America,† in Europe and the People without History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997 [1982]), pp. 131-157. Winn, Peter, â€Å"The Legacies of Empire† in Americas: The Changing Face of Latin America and the Caribbean (New York: Pantheon Books, 1992), pp. 39-83 Columbian Exchange The Columbian Exchange â€Å"Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492† is a common expression used today about the discovery of the Americas. What happens after the discovery of the Americas? Transculturation. This is the mixing of cultures in which both sides change in one way or another (Murphy, 1-14-13). The Columbian Exchange happened when people from Europe and Africa settled into Latin America and the Caribbean after the discovery of the Americas. The Columbian Exchange brought over diseases to the Americas, plants and animals, and the exchange of silver.The colonization of the Americas made exchanging animals and plants happen daily. Sugar was one plant that was brought over. Sugar was brought over to Brazil from the coast of Africa (Crosby, 69). Towards the end of the 16th century, Brazil became the biggest producer of sugarcane. At first, sugar was only bought by the rich but over time it was an important crop in everyone’s day to day life. Sugar coul d be boiled down into concentrated, making it easy to fit in ships, causing it to become the cash crop for centuries (Chasteen, 24).Brazil was producing 57, 000 tons of sugar annually in 1610, in which the English started to produce sugar which drove the production down in Brazil (Crosby, 69). Sugar created harsh working environments and ended up having slaves do all of the work. Slaves were purchased and brought in from West Africa (Wolfe, 150). Maize, potatoes, tomatoes, and many other plants were added to European and Africa diets. Many crops that exist in European nations have come from the Americas during the Columbian Exchange.Tomatoes were grown in the Americas before they made their way to Italy. Italy is known for their food that uses tomatoes and many people think that the tomato originated in Italy. The tomato got brought back to Italy throughout the trips from the Americas. Maize was introduced to Asia in the 16th century, which was a factor for population growth in Asia (Crosby, 65). As Winn states â€Å"But not much of the Columbian exchange was not positive for the indigenous people of the Americas† (Winn, 43), most of the Columbian exchange was lop sided.Europeans and Africans got the better end of the Columbian exchange due to the fact that they transferred many of the diseases instead of receiving them. Along with plants, imported animals arrived in the America during Columbus’s second voyage in 1493 (Crosby, 75). Horses, dogs, pigs, cattle, chickens, sheep, and goats all arrived in the Americas in the 16th century. Pigs were the first animals to blow up, with 30,000 pigs in Cuba by 1514 (Crosby, 76). Cattle, like pigs, reproduced in great numbers and quickly adapted to the new environment.All of these animals were used some way or another to produce a profit. Skin became the biggest export from America to Europe after colonization to the America’s happened (Murphy, 1-23-13). The fat was used to produce animals and sheep were used to produce clothing (Murphy, 1-23-13). Horses gave Bernal Diaz the advantage in defeating the Aztec to claim Mexico. Cattle provided meat which would not have been there if it wasn’t for the colonization. The Spaniards realized that silver from the America’s could bring them indefinite money, while the silver lasted.There was virtually no silver being exported from the Americas to Europe before Columbus discovered the Americas. At the beginning of the 16th century, silver production in the Americas started to sky rocket due to the Spaniards discovering the benefits of silver. In the 1540’s, a silver mine located in Potosi, Peru was opened up by the Spaniards (Chasteen, 50). The town of Potosi blew up due to this new economic growth that was happening. The working environments were harsh; men had to carry pounds and pounds of silver down the mountain (Murphy, 1-28-13).From 1503-1660, 700 million pounds of silver gets exported from the Americas to Europe (Murphy, 1-28-13). The problem with silver is that it has boom and bust cycles, where one year silver may be at its all-time high and the next the economy takes a beating. The money being made was through the taxing of this silver. The exchange of silver brought the Americas and the rest of the world together. This was due to the trade that was happening with the silver. The crown in Spain received around 40 percent of all the silver profits (Wolfe, 139).The crown received this money due to the royal fifth or settlement of American taxes (Wolfe, 139). Around 30 percent of the silver was illegally traded to the crown did not receive that money (Murphy, 1-28-13). No food is able to grow at Potosi so all of it had to be imported from other countries. This created huge trade relations across the world. The food from Potosi would be imported from elsewhere because it was cheaper, causing the prices to rise in the Potosi economy (Wolfe, 139). In the early 1800’s, the silver ran ou t and the town of Potosi went down with it.This shows how much the Spaniards had an impact on the Americas, Peru in this instance. The diseases that Europe and Africa brought in during colonization to the Americas were the biggest negative impact of the Columbian Exchange. Diseases wiped out populations in the Americas. Native Americans had no immunity towards the diseases that were coming in. Diseases like smallpox, measles, malaria, plague, and many others were killing native people uncontrollably. In lower and upper Peru, the population declined from 5 million to less than 300 thousand in 1780-1790’s (Wolfe, 135).As shown in this quote by Winn â€Å"The result was the greatest demographic disaster in history† (Winn, 43), this epidemic effected wherever colonization happened in the Americas. The old world diseases were not intentionally spread to the Americas but were a side effect of transculturation. The Columbian exchange was a major factor in the Colonization of the Americas. New foods were exchanged between the Americas and Europe and Africa. Animals were also swapped during this exchange, which created economic opportunities.The finding of silver in Potosi helped Spain gain money through taxes. This was a boom and bust cycle which leads to Potosi becoming a ghost town. With colonization happening, diseases brought from the Europeans and Africans killed an uncountable amount of people in the Americas. The Columbian Exchange changed Latin America and the Caribbean fully. The real question is what would Latin America and the Caribbean be like if the Columbian Exchange never happened? Works Cited Chasteen, â€Å"Encounter,† in Born in Blood and Fire, pp. 11-42 (3rd ed), 25-53 (2nd).Chasteen, â€Å"The Colonial Crucible,† in Born in Blood, pp. 49-80 (3rd ed), 59-89 (2nd). Crosby, Alfred, â€Å"Old World Plants and Animals in the New World,† in The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1973), pp. 64-121. Wolfe, Eric, â€Å"Iberians in America,† in Europe and the People without History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997 [1982]), pp. 131-157. Winn, Peter, â€Å"The Legacies of Empire† in Americas: The Changing Face of Latin America and the Caribbean (New York: Pantheon Books, 1992), pp. 39-83

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Analysis Of The Poem The Chrysanthemums - 966 Words

Freedom is the ability to speak, act, think, and do what you want without any restrictions from anyone or anything. The stories â€Å"The Story of an Hour† and â€Å"The Chrysanthemums† have a theme of freedom that is expressed through the use of the main characters Elise and Mrs. Miller (Louise). The two characters are woman who wish for freedom. Though they are women with husbands that love them and beautiful homes they are restricted by their marriage, gender, and the social norm of their time period. These two women do not just want any type of freedom, they want freedom of independence. To do as they wish, act as they wish, speak as they wish. In the story â€Å"The Chrysanthemums† the theme of freedom is very subtle. Elise the main character is an intelligent, ambitious, beautiful woman with a lot to offer but because she is a woman her potentials is ignored. Elise does not have the freedom to do the things that men can do such as working in a ranch, or goi ng around in car fixing things like the Tinker does. Elise is trapped in the social norm of her time period. The 1930s was a time were women had the right to vote and were becoming more and more independent but they were far from being equal with men. Women were still considered the subordinate sex. They cook, clean and do all the housework while the men go to work. When Elise’s husband says he wished â€Å"[she] would work out in the orchard†, Elisa answers â€Å"[she] could do it† instead of she will do it (Steinbeck, 589). She answeredShow MoreRelatedJohn Steinbeck2062 Words   |  9 Pagesbeen develop such as novel, poems, and short stories. Short Stories are described has miniature versions of books or novels, where an author takes a tale and crams it into a ten to twenty page story. John Steinbeck is not only a well-known novelist, but also writes short stories like â€Å"The Chrysanthemums† and â€Å"Flight†. In Steinbeck’s â€Å"Th e Chrysthemums† Elisa Allen is married to a negligent ranch owner. While her husband works on the ranch, Elisa tends to her chrysanthemum garden daily. One day whileRead MoreEnglish All Semester 26504 Words   |  27 Pagesconquer in battle; subjugate; to defeat in a contest, conflict, or competition. | virulent | adjective | bitterly hostile or antagonistic; hateful | yarn-spinner | noun | a weaver of tall-tales, a spinner of stories | 6.04A The Chrysanthemums ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Question 1 (Multiple Choice Worth 5 points) How does Steinbeck show the simple lifestyles led in this story? Elisa and Henry worry about how they will pay for their dinnerRead MoreAnalysis of â€Å"Dark Shadows† as a Gothic Masterpiece2169 Words   |  9 PagesAnalysis of â€Å"Dark Shadows† as a Gothic Masterpiece To most, when asked to define what Gothic is, they will state that it is similar to any other story, just with more â€Å"darkness.† This is because Gothic stories all have a classic story line. First, there is the main character’s back story, if any is then told. Next, there are events that lead up to a horrible incident that is the climax of the story. Lastly, the character finds some way to fix the situation or free him- or herself fromRead MoreSex and Dominance in The Ghost Road Essay3936 Words   |  16 PagesLizzies contribution to the war effort.   Unfortunately for Lizzie, five of the seven turned out not to have enlisted at all   (Barker 36).   Despite the fact that Lizzie was Priors best friends mother, he copulates with her, inviting a Freudian analysis of Priors sexual motivations.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Next, a Scarborough whore called Elinor feigns to trip across Prior as he walks down the road.   Prior is tempted, but hesitant; he eventually concedes and follows Elinor to her flat.   Inside, Prior

Friday, December 27, 2019

A Moveable Feast By Ernest Hemingway - 1420 Words

While reading A Moveable Feast, I felt immersed into Ernest Hemingway’s world and developed a better understanding of him with a human experience. This novel provides an inside look on both, Hemingway’s time in Paris in the 1920s and the time at the end of his life leading up to his premature death. If one is familiar with his life, and especially his later years, A Moveable Feast gives insight into his life at the time of writing his memoir. The text itself is about Paris, but the reflection comes from an older Hemingway who was sentimental, longing and nostalgic. Regardless of the comments from family, friends and academics, interpreting the text itself in A Moveable Feast is the best way to learn about Hemingway and his mindset during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Unlike many great books, there are two versions of A Moveable Feast which were released by individuals separated by two generations. First, there is the 1964 version which offers the completed and unified memoir on Hemingway’s early years in Paris. It is important to understand that Hemingway never completed the memoir and his fourth wife, Mary Hemingway, performed much of the editing and final touches. In contrast, the 2009 version is believed by most to be more accurate to Hemingway’s original manuscripts, but it does not offer a unified story. Even though these versions are very different from one another they both offer valuable insight on Hemingway as a person. Since A Moveable Feast was left unfinished,Show MoreRelatedA Moveable Feast By Ernest Hemingway863 Words   |  4 PagesErnest Hemingway was an exemplary writer who tragically took his own life July of 1961, 3 years before the publication of his last writing, a memoir titled A Moveable Feast in 1964. His memoir was published posthumously by his wife and widow, Mary Hemingway through editing his manuscripts and notes. His book is a collection of reflections of his experiences and observations in 1920’s Paris which he wrote 40 years later. In this writing he provides information such as cafe names and specific bookstoresRead More Ernest Hemingway and Fitzgerald on the Expatriate Experiance1402 Words   |  6 PagesHemingway and Fitzgerald on the Expatriate Experiance Youre an expatriate. Youve lost touch with the soil. You get precious. Fake European standards have ruined you. You drink yourself to death. You become obsessed with sex. You spend all your time talking, not working. You are an expatriate, see? (Sun Also Rises, 115)1 Paris in the 1920s was a place that seemed to embody dynamic artistic achievement. Many of the great artists of modernist movements were either there or had passedRead MoreAnalysis of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas and A Moveable Feast1305 Words   |  5 Pagesauthor. The tendency to take liberty with the truth is often exacerbated when the author of such works has an affinity (or perhaps gift) for the written language, such as is the case with both Ernest Hemingway and Gertrude Stein, who produced fairly unconventional autobiographical works entitled A Moveable Feast and The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, respectively. The proclivity to glorify ones own actions and deeds in effect to make oneself appear cool is often an irresistible temptation, especiallyRead MoreEssay about Ernest Hemingway’s A Moveable Feast623 Words   |  3 PagesErnest Hemingway’s A Moveable Feast In Ernest Hemingway’s A Moveable Feast he tells the tale of his early career and life in Paris. He tells of his meetings with famous writers, poets, and the times that they had. He spoke especially of Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein, and Ezra Pound. He did have a tendency to portray them a little bit unfairly. He was a little critical of them because of the fact that he shared so much time with them. Usually when people spend lots of time with each otherRead More Hemingway and Fitzgerald Essay1423 Words   |  6 PagesHemingway and Fitzgerald Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald, the parties of one of the most famously infamous relationships in literary history met for the first time in late April 1925 at The Dingo Bar, a Paris hangout for the bohemian set. In his novel A Moveable Feast (published posthumously) Hemingway describes his first impressions of Fitzgerald: â€Å"The first time I ever met Scott Fitzgerald a very strange thing happened. Many strange things happened with Scott, but thisRead MoreThe Largest Feast May Not Cure Hunger1465 Words   |  6 PagesThe Largest Feast May Not Cure Hunger Ernest Hemingway discusses the theme of hunger throughout A moveable feast by exploring and describing the different types of hunger that he felt. He aims to explore this theme in the passage where he strolls with Hadley, and they stop to eat at the restaurant Michaud’s. Through repetition and use of unconventional detail and word choice, Hemingway shows that he has more than one type of hunger, and needs to differentiate between them. Hemingway strives toRead MoreAn Analysis of Hemingway’s A Moveable Feast2139 Words   |  9 Pagesauthor from another; whether it be their use of dialogue, their complex descriptions, their syntax, or their tone. When reading an excerpt of Hemingway’s A Moveable Feast one could easily dissect the work, pick apart each significant moment from Hemingway’s life and analyze it in order to form their own idea of the author’s voice, of his identity. Ernest Hemingway’s writing immediately comes across as rather fami liar in one sense. His vocabulary is not all that complicated, his layout is rather straightforwardRead MoreA Clean Well Lighted Place Summary1203 Words   |  5 PagesPart I: The Lost Generation â€Å"The Lost Generation† Article Questions The authors included in the Lost Generation are, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, John Dos Passos, Sherwood Anderson, Kay Boyle, Hart Crane, Ford Maddox, and Zelda Fitzgerald. The common elements and themes that these authors pursued in their personal lives as well as their writing were brutal war experiences, their youthful and impractical actions such as love affairs and drinking, feeling lost and hopeless in societyRead MoreTaking a Look at Ernest Hemingway1167 Words   |  5 PagesErnest Hemingway Research Paper Ernest Hemingway was an extraordinary individual. There was a lot more to his life than most readers know about. His writing was influenced by the lifestyle that he led. Hemingway was an adventurous person that liked to live life to its fullest. Just like everyone, he made decisions that were both good and bad, and his decisions and actions shaped his writing style. Hemmingway found a great deal of success and his career was topped off with him being awarded theRead MoreArt And The Modern Era And Impact The 20th Century1522 Words   |  7 Pagesand Ernest Hemingway are those two names, which they don’t need to identification. They are well-known personality from lifetime works on their own respected fields. Pablo Picasso and Hemingway are most well-known in the 20th century and still popular in art and literature. Both artists created valuable paintings, stories and novels from their imagination and express beautifully that reader and viewer can inspired by them. That why t hey are always be our inspiration and idol. How did Ernest Hemingway

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Changing Role of Managerial Accounting in a Dynamic...

CHAPTER 1 THE CHANGING ROLE OF MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING IN A DYNAMIC BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Learning Objectives 1. Define managerial accounting and describe its role in the management process. 2. Explain four fundamental management processes that help organizations attain their goals. 3. List and describe five objectives of managerial accounting activity. 4. Explain the major differences between managerial and financial accounting. 5. Explain where managerial accountants are located in an organization, in terms of formal organization, deployment in cross-functional teams, and physical location. 6. Describe the roles of an organizations chief financial officer (CFO) or controller, treasurer, and internal auditor. 7.†¦show more content†¦Ã¢Å¾ ¢ Decision making—the process of choosing among available alternatives âž ¢ Planning—developing a detailed financial and operational description of anticipated operations âž ¢ Directing operational activities—running the organization on a day-to-day basis âž ¢ Controlling—ensuring that the organization operates in the intended manner to achieve its goals 2. HOW MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING ADDS VALUE Provides managers with information (e.g., product costs, budgets, cash flows). The information includes financial and nonfinancial data to help managers with strategic planning and decision making. Assists in directing and controlling (analyzing and comparing actual performance to budgeted plans; attention-directing to highlight successful or problem areas). Motivates managers to achieve the organizations goals by communicating the plans, providing a measurement of how well the plan was achieved, and prompting an explanation of deviations from plans. âž ¢ Motivation is achieved, in part, through employee empowerment—the concept of encouraging and authorizing workers to improve operations, reduce costs, and improve product quality and customer service. 1. Measures performance not only for the entire organization, as in financial accounting, but also for many subunits (divisions, departments, managers). †¢Show MoreRelatedChapter01.the Changing Role of Managerial Accounting in a Dynamic Business Environment4441 Words   |  18 Pagesabout managerial accountants is false? A. Managerial accountants more and more are considered business partners. B. Managerial accountants often are part of cross-functional teams. C. An increasing number of organizations are segregating managerial accountants in separate managerial-accounting departments. D. In a number of companies, managerial accountants make significant business decisions and resolve operating problems. E. The role of managerialRead MoreEvolution of Performance Measurement Models in Management Accounting1594 Words   |  7 PagesManagement Accounting Name Grade course Tutor’s name 2nd October 2010 Abstract Changes in management accounting have gone by unnoticed in the recent years. This article tries to explain by how much management accounting has altered through the years, since the 1950s to date, and the reasons that led to the changes. This work also focuses on various performance evaluation models, their applications and their effectiveness. Introduction There was little advancement in accounting in theRead MoreWhat Is Strategic Management1189 Words   |  5 Pagesmanagement, marketing, finance/accounting, production/operations, research and development, and computer information systems to achieve organizational success but strategy must be closely aligned with purpose. Is this the process of specifying an organization s objectives, developing policies and plans to achieve these objectives, and allocating resources so as to implement the plans. It is the highest level of managerial activity. It is not a task, but a rather a set of managerial skills that ought to beRead MoreCase Workbrain1709 Words   |  7 Pagesbut the coming expansion will require more extensive infrastructure. The external environment can be characterized by building pressure from investors, clients, and the marketplace—all driven by the innovative characteristics of their product and industry. Workbrain management currently prefers generalists rather than specialized employees. A key resource for Workbrain is the technical, industrial, and managerial experience possessed by the executives. Traditionally companies require five basicRead MoreAccounting Theory and Practice Essay2225 Words   |  9 Pagesvoluntary activities? Although there is no consensus being reached about what perspective theories should be used to explain the Social and Environmental Accounting, and moreover critique voices are from the works of Marx or by the deep-green or feminist literatures (Deegan, 2002), to some extent, systems-oriented theory and Positive Accounting Theory can list some hints. This essay will seek to explain the reasons why firms voluntary disclosure information by referring to Legitimacy theory, StakeholderRead MoreThe Importance Of A Cultural Framework That Is Suitable For The Modern Dynamic Business Environment1222 Words   |  5 Pages1.0 INTRODUCTION Budgets are very important part of business environment. They are considered to be essential key drivers and evaluators for planning and control as well as managerial performance since 1920 (Reka et al., 2014). This report aims to investigate how to promote a cultural framework that is suitable for the modern dynamic business environment. Firstly, it will explain the concept of budgetary control, It will then point out advantages and disadvantages of the current traditional systemRead MoreMis Foundation Concepts2338 Words   |  10 PagesSYSTEMS Foundation Concepts: Information Systems in Business Introduction 1. Information systems and technologies are a vital component of successful businesses and organizations. 2. it is just as important to have a basic understanding of information systems as it is to understand any other functional area in business. 3. Information technologies, including Internet-based information systems, are playing a vital and expanding role in business. Information technology can help all kinds of businessesRead MorePSYC310 Portfolio Project Rollins Essay1575 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿ A Psychological Approach to Working in the Accounting Field Sarah Rollins Bryant and Stratton College PSYC310: Organizational Psychology Professor Achim June 18, 2014 The United States Census Report from 1870 indicated â€Å"the occupations of females, an analysis of the numbers reported†¦ shows a curious, though probably not significant, rate of progression† (Walker, 1870, para. 7). Little did the United States Government realize that less than a century later women in the workforce wouldRead MoreHilton Ppt Chapter 1 Answer Key6698 Words   |  27 PagesChapter 01 The Changing Role of Managerial Accounting in a Dynamic Business Environment Chapter 01 The Changing Role of Managerial Accounting in a Dynamic Business Environment Answer Key    True / False Questions    1.  Controlling involves the coordination of daily business functions within an organization.   FALSE    AACSB: Reflective Thinking AICPA BB: Industry AICPA FN: Decision Making Bloom s: RC Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 01-02 Explain four fundamental managementRead MoreRole and Practices in Management Accounting Today3208 Words   |  13 Pages|ACC601: Managerial Accounting | | | | | |Role and Practices in Management Accounting Today | | | |

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Importance of ERP Systems in Business-Free-Samples for Student

Question: Discuss about the Importance of ERP Systems in Business. Answer: Introduction Any type of business needs to have different departments for maintaining the various functions that goes in a business. It is impossible to perform all the business functionalities for a single person or department. For example, a finance department is required that handles all the financial transactions that is performed within the organisation. An IT team can be needed that will be responsible for the development and maintenance of all the technologies that are required for the business operations (Weibach 2013). A grievance management team or more popularly human resource management team will be required that will receive grievances regarding any matter related to clients or employees of the organisation. A management team will be necessary that will look after and manage all the operations that are going on in a business. More departments are necessary for maintaining the functionality of other business operations that depends on the type of business (Weibach 2013). The various departments in an organisation require to maintain communication among each other as each of the departments are interlinked in their functionalities for the business to work properly. An organisation incorporates many technologies that help to maintain a proper link among the various hierarchies in the organisation (Ver?i?, Ver?i?, and Sriramesh 2012). The report introduces a system known as the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system that is a type of information system, which is implemented in organisations to help the organisation to manage and integrate the important parts of the business like planning, inventory management, purchasing, sales, marketing, human resource and finance. The purpose of the report is to explain in detail the role and advantage of an ERP system in an organisation (Ver?i?, Ver?i?, and Sriramesh 2012) Definition of Business Process A business process is defined as a collection of tasks or activities that are interlinked and the process ends with the completion of delivery of a service or a product to the client. The completion of the task by the organisation helps the organisation to complete its goal. A business process is required to involve well-defined inputs and a single output (Dumas et al. 2013). The inputs should comprise of all the factors that has contributed both directly and indirectly to the completion and delivery of a service or product. These aspects can be segmented into operational processes, supporting processes and management processes (Weske 2012). Management process is responsible for governing the activity of a particular companys system of operation. The operational process looks after the core business functionalities. The role of the supporting business process is clear from its name as it supports the operational process in performing its activities (Jeston and Nelis 2014). Supporting processes are generally managed by the human resource management and finance department of an organisation. A process requires various steps of activities to achieve an objective. Processes are considered simple or complex depending on the number and complexity of each step, and the quantity of systems involved for the completion of the process (Van Der Aalst 2013). A process can be short or long depending on the complexity level of the process. The longer a process is the more dependencies it tends to have and a greater requirement of documentation arises. The figure provided below shows a generalised business process model that is adopted by most organisations (Laguna and Marklund 2013). Figure 1: General Business Process Model (Source: Weske 2012 ) Definition of Business Requirements Business requirement in general is defined as a statement that explains the functionality of a system rather than the process by which the operation is executed. A business requirement consists of instructions that describe the functions that are required to be provided by the system and the characteristics of the resulting solutions (Robertson and Robertson 2012). It helps a business to identify its functionalities that it requires to perform to achieve its goal. The figure provided below shows the position of a business requirement among the steps of a business process (Wiegers and Beatty 2013). Figure 2: Business Requirement in a Business Process. (Source: Robertson and Robertson 2012) Objective of Business Requirements The purpose of a business requirement is as given below: Documentation and clarification of the needs of the stakeholders. Setting, clarifying and managing the expectations regarding the delivery detail of the service or product to the client. It helps an organisation to analyse, understand their requirement of resources for the performance and completion of their activities, and provide an outline to them that will aid them to make an informed purchase decision. It helps to maintain the scope of an IT development or purchase. A mechanism is provided that helps to establish communication with a service provider of technology regarding the functionality of the solution that will meet the requirements of the business. Helps to make cost and product pricing decisions. Provide an opportunity to examine the functionality of a product. Lastly, it allows comparing various products during purchasing done by an organisation (Bryman and Bell 2015). Steps Involved in a Business Requirement A business requirement involves five steps as shown below that can be useful for any organisation while creating a business requirement analysis (Falge, Otto and Osterle 2012). Figure 3: Steps involved in Business Requirement Analysis. (Source: Falge, Otto and Osterle 2012) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System ERP is a type of information system that is required for the management and integration of essential aspects of an organisation. It is a term used in industries that is coined for explaining a large variety of operations that allow an organisation to manage its business. An ERP system performs a vital function of integrating back office processes performed by a business and allows smooth data flow within the organisation so that the business personnel can take proper decisions (Hall 2014). ERP system software is designed to gather and manage information from different levels of an organisation and link the activities of each department of the organisation with each other. A well-planned incorporation of ERP can facilitate a company to automate and standardise its business process and help the efficiency of the operations for further improvement (Romney and Steinbart 2009). An integrated approach to manage business processes not only saves time and money but also ensures that all the departments are performing their functions in relevance to the same data and is able to view the same KPIs (Key Performance Indicators). The need for the implementation of an ERP system arises in an organisation when the business systems start to outgrow, especially when business systems are composed of a wide range of applications that has been gathered by the organisation over time (Gelinas and Dull 2008). The ERP system becomes necessary when the gap between the capability of the business software and the need of the business processes widens creating a pain issue for the organisation. The ERP system does not have a generalised model or method of implementation, rather it varies from organisation to organisation that implements the system as per the mode of their operation (Richardson, Chang and Smith 2014). Types of ERP system Most organisations that use ERP systems implement a homogeneous, complex and large on board legacy systems. These systems are very costly for implementation due to the intensive requirement of the huge legacy infrastructure within the organisation premises. The maintenance of such systems is also very difficult due to its complex structure and the company using such system needs to recruit additional personnel for the maintenance of such systems. Moreover, the essential data stored aboard the legacy ERP system always runs the risk of being damaged or stolen due to any human or non-human activity (Powell, Riezebos and Strandhagen 2013). The latest type of ERP system uses cloud-based services instead of the bulky and complicated legacy systems. The process of conversion of the legacy ERP systems to cloud-based ERP systems is very difficult as the legacy systems do not easily convert to the cloud-based ERP version (Romney and Steinbart 2012). Moreover, conversion of an ERP system from one type to another requires considerable change in the business process model, training to the employees regarding the new ERP system features and operations, rear support for integration of database and analysis of data. Nowadays, the ERP vendors are providing ERP system software that has cloud-based compatibility as many organisations have started to adopt cloud compatible ERP systems (Zach and Erik Munkvold 2012). Cloud-based ERP systems are easy to deploy and requires less cost for deployment. A company that uses cloud-based ERP systems do not have to worry about the maintenance of the infrastructure nor do they have to deploy any e xpert within premises to operate and manage the system. Another advantage of deploying cloud-based ERP system software is that the mission critical information of the organisation is stored in the cloud at multiple remote locations secured with latest security tools (Staehr, Shanks and Seddon 2012). Therefore, the chance of data damage due to any human or non-human activities is minimised to negligible amount. The organisation pays for the cloud-based services and the cloud service providers look after all the operations, from maintenance to the security of the system along with complete infrastructure necessary for the ERP system to perform its required task (Clegg and Wan 2013). Some organisations adopt a hybrid approach to the implementation of the ERP system. In this kind of approach, part of the system is hosted in the cloud server and the rest is deployed on premises. The mission critical information that is required by the organisation for its business operations are generally stored in the cloud-server whereas the hardware part is implemented in the organisation (Elragral and El Kommos 2012). Multi-tiered ERP System General deployment of ERP system to an organisation includes a standard monolithic system from a single vendor. These vendors generally provide service with huge legacy systems. However, many organisations are recently adopting the process of running multiple ERP systems within a single environment. This model of deployment is known as multi-tiered ERP system deployment (Bradford 2015). The reason for this mode of deployment of the ERP system is due to the complexity of geographical differences between an organisation with its various departments or company mergers for which various systems are required to be integrated within a single environment. This type of ERP system generally involves the deployment of a centralised huge Tier-1 ERP, which is installed across the organisation. The Tier-1 ERP system performs all the mission critical activities for the organisation. One or more additional ERP system known as Tier-2 ERP system are deployed, which perform department specific less critical functions (Al-Johani and Youssef 2013). ERP System Requirements The system requirement for an ERP system varies among different organisations that depend solely on the type of business the organisation is in and the business area, which the organisation seeks to improve. The organisations that are in the business of selling products adopt an ERP system that manages the functions related to manufacturing, distribution and supply chain management. The organisations that provide service to other companies deploy ERP systems that provide support regarding field services, service level agreements and sales operations (Matende and Ogao 2013). Useful ERP software has loosely coupled software modules that integrate easily with other information systems that are pre-installed in an organisation. Some of the main components that are included in most ERP software are as follows: Human Resource Management is tasked to accumulate information and form reports regarding recruitment of employees, training and professional development of employees, and review of performance, exit interviews and mediation. Finance has the responsibility to accumulate information regarding finance and creates reports like overall balance sheets, ledgers, quarterly financial statements and trail balance information. Supply Chain Management has the duty to gather information and form reports regarding information, finance and materials that is involved in the process that starts from a supplier and ends with the delivery to the customer. Inventory Management performs the task of acquiring and accumulating information and generating reports related to stock items and non-capitalised assets (Matende and Ogao 2013). Vendors of ERP System Software Many ERP vendors are there who provide a wide variety of functions depending on the requirement of the organisation with both the choice of cloud or on-board deployment. Microsoft Dynamics, SAP and Oracle are the popular legacy platforms that have multiple functional ERP systems and both the option of on-board and cloud deployment. Many small, medium and large organisations are their clients (Ajit, Donker and Patnaik 2014). Provided below is a list of other top vendors that also facilitate multirole ERP systems: Infor Sage Software Inc. Epicor Software Corp. IFS World SYSPRO USA QAD Inc. IQMS The top ERP cloud vendors are as follows: Plex NetSuite Inc. Acumatica Inc. Kenandy Inc. Small vendors providing ERP software support often specialise to help in business processes like financials, research and development, supply chain management, engineering and HR. They also provide expert solutions on particular business sectors retail, healthcare, manufacturing or public sector (Ajit, Donker and Patnaik 2014). Support Provided by ERP Vendor The vendors who provide ERP software system to various organisations offer a variety of support models for the ERP systems that depends on the licensing contracts made with clients. The responsibility of support service includes various levels of functionality. An organisation needs to maintain voice support and consultation module for its customers. Other services like solving incidents, fixing bugs, assistance regarding patches, updates and upgrades are also provided by these ERP vendors (Ajit, Donker and Patnaik 2014). However, some organisations provide support as third-party vendor for the management of the ERP system that is provided by another vendor. Method of Successful ERP Selection for Organisation ERP solution providers are easy to find and employ who claim to provide the best in market service. However, it is difficult to choose the right vendor who will help to provide a perfect solution necessary for the improvement of the organisation (Ajit, Donker and Patnaik 2014). The process of choosing and investing on the correct ERP solution is an important process that needs the involvement of individuals from various levels and departments of the organisation to determine that the implementation of the new ERP system will improve the productivity of the organisations, reduce the cost of operation, increase efficiency, increase the profit count and such (Ajit, Donker and Patnaik 2014). The nine steps provided below will ensure an organisation to discover and adopt an optimum ERP solution for the improvement of the same. Assessment of Need of an ERP System in Business The initial requirement before commencing the operation of choosing a new ERP system or changing an existing one is to analyse and determine the need to deploy an ERP system in the organisation. It is better to create a list of all basic as well as specific requirements that is expected from the ERP service provider. It is also necessary to create a list of expectations regarding the improvement of business like evaluation of strategy, cost saving and control, better tools for reporting, growth and compliance (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). Appointing a Selection Team and Following an Organised Selection Process Once the necessity of the ERP solution is determined in relevance to the requirements in the organisation, a selection team is required to be organised that will be responsible for the management of the whole process of the ERP system implementation from the beginning until the end (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). The selection team should comprise of relevant staffs from the various organisational departments, senior management and corporate personnel, so that the new ERP system succeeds to mitigate all the existing organisational issues. The team should be handled by someone who is adequate knowledge regarding the existing organisational system and its issues (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). Assessment of Business Requirements and Resource Limitations The selection team will be tasked to analyse the existing organisational system and assess the operations the organisation performs. It will then examine the drawbacks within the organisation that is hindering it in its improvement and create a list of the issues (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). A list is also necessary that will provide the required amendments needed to be present in the new ERP system that will seal the loopholes of the company and aid in its improvement. The functionality, responsiveness and adaptability of the system should also be taken into consideration to help avoid high consultation cost (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). Communicating With Top Vendors The communication with vendors regarding the implementation of a new ERP system to the organisation or changing an existing one should include certain questionnaire that is required to be clarified from the vendor. These questions will help the selection team to understand that whether the ERP system provided by the vendor will help to solve all the requirements of the organisation (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). Some of the questions that may be asked that will help to achieve the objective of the organisation mentioned above are provided below. Which application area is covered by the vendor? How many existing clients of the vendor are there at present? Does the vendor facilitate with structured implementation methodology? Does the vendor provide local customer support in different countries? Determining the Selection Criteria of ERP Features It is necessary to measure and grade the ERP features. Some selection criteria are necessary to be determined during the selection process of an ERP system that matches all the business requirements of the organisation. A scorecard is also necessary to be generated that will provide a score-based report to the ERP vendor, which will help the vendor to understand the level of service that is being provided to the organisation. The table given below will help in the selection criteria (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). ERP FEATURES (Selection Criteria) ERP Vendor Vendor 1 Vendor 2 Vendor 3 Vendor 4 Vendor 5 Annual Cost Mobility Scalability Core Modules Business Intelligence and Reporting Security and Encryption Integration Workflow Automation Extensibility Table 1: Selection Criteria of ERP Features (Source: Sun, Ni and Lam 2015) SCORE CARD Description Score Exceeds beyond requirement expectation 4 Meets the requirements 3 May not meet the requirement 2 Does not meet the requirement 1 Do not apply 0 Table 2: Score Card to Compare the ERP systems (Source: Sun, Ni and Lam 2015) Determining the ERP Vendor Selection Criteria and Finding the Correct Vendor To deploy ERP system software that meets the requirement of the organisation it is necessary to analyse the different ERP vendors that is available to the organisation and compare their services to find the vendor whose services are compatible to the requirements of the organisation. To achieve the above-mentioned objective it is necessary to consider more than one vendor, preferable five to ten vendors whose services can be compared and graded. The rest of the process is same as that in the previous step. The table provided below will help the selection team to grade and compare various vendors that will aid in the selection of the compatible vendor (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). Selection Criteria ERP Vendor Vendor 1 Vendor 2 Vendor 3 Vendor 4 Vendor 5 Technical Requirements Financial Strength of Vendor Business Assessment Licensing Cost Future Product Development Roadmap of the Vendor Training Costs Corporate Value of Vendor Customer Support Table 3: ERP Vendor Selection Criteria (Source: Sun, Ni and Lam 2015) SCORE CARD Description Score Expectation exceeds beyond the requirement 4 Meets the requirements 3 May Not Meet the Requirement 2 Does Not Meet the Requirement 1 Do Not Apply 0 Table 4: Score Card to Compare the Vendors (Source: Sun, Ni and Lam 2015) Filling the Score Cards and Comparing the ERP Vendors based on Total Score The scores received in the steps 5.5 and 5.6 are required to be summed and the top two to three vendors needs to be shortlisted for the processes that is described in the next steps (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). Short listing of the Vendors and Demo Proposal The top two to three ERP vendors are shortlisted according to the scorecard result and then they are told to provide demo solutions with their ERP system that will solve some of the issues of the organisation (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). Final Selection of the Compatible ERP Vendor and Forming the Project Plan for the New ERP System Implementation The ERP vendor who succeeds to provide the best ERP solution in the step 5.8 will be chosen for the initiation of a client-vendor relationship and starting the process of implementation. The process stated above begins with the finalising of the service contract, licensing and maintenance agreement between the client organisation and the ERP vendor (Sun, Ni and Lam 2015). Conclusion The report concludes with the fact that an ERP/AIS system is necessary in every organisation for achieving flawless performance in business. The implementation of a good and new ERP software system requires involvement from every level and department of the organisation who have to complete a number of complex steps to examine and find the correct ERP solution that is compatible to the critical requirements of the organisation References Ajit, D., Donker, H. and Patnaik, S., 2014. ERP system implementation announcements: does the market cheer or jeer the adopters and vendors?. International Journal of Accounting Information Management, 22(4), pp.339-356. Al-Johani, A.A. and Youssef, A.E., 2013. A framework for ERP systems in SME based on cloud computing technology. International Journal on Cloud Computing: Services and Architecture, 3(3), pp.1-14. Bradford, M., 2015. Modern ERP: select, implement, and use today's advanced business systems. Lulu. com. Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2015. Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA. Clegg, B. and Wan, Y., 2013. Managing enterprises and ERP systems: a contingency model for the enterprization of operations. International Journal of Operations Production Management, 33(11/12), pp.1458-1489. Dumas, M., La Rosa, M., Mendling, J. and Reijers, H.A., 2013. Introduction to business process management. In Fundamentals of Business Process Management (pp. 1-31). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Elragal, A. and El Kommos, M., 2012. In-house versus in-cloud ERP systems: A comparative study. Journal of Enterprise Resource Planning Studies, 2012, p.1. Falge, C., Otto, B. and sterle, H., 2012, January. Data quality requirements of collaborative business processes. In System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 4316-4325). IEEE. Gelinas, U.J. and Dull, R.B. 2008. Accounting Information Systems, 8th edition, South-western Cengage Learning. Hall, James A. 2014 Accounting Information Systems, 9th edition, South-western Cengage Learning. Jeston, J. and Nelis, J., 2014. Business process management. Routledge. Laguna, M. and Marklund, J., 2013. Business process modeling, simulation and design. CRC Press. Matende, S. and Ogao, P., 2013. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system implementation: a case for user participation. Procedia Technology, 9, pp.518-526. Powell, D., Riezebos, J. and Strandhagen, J.O., 2013. Lean production and ERP systems in small-and medium-sized enterprises: ERP support for pull production. International Journal of Production Research, 51(2), pp.395-409. Richardson V.J., Chang C.J., Smith R. 2014. Accounting Information Systems McGraw Hill ISBN:0078025494 Robertson, S. and Robertson, J., 2012. Mastering the requirements process: Getting requirements right. Addison-wesley. Romney, M.B. and Steinbart, P.J. 2009. Accounting Information Systems, 11th edition, Prentice Hall. Romney, M.B. and Steinbart, P.J., 2012. Accounting information systems. Boston: Pearson. Staehr, L., Shanks, G. and Seddon, P.B., 2012. An explanatory framework for achieving business benefits from ERP systems. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 13(6), p.424. Sun, H., Ni, W. and Lam, R., 2015. A step-by-step performance assessment and improvement method for ERP implementation: Action case studies in Chinese companies. Computers in Industry, 68, pp.40-52. Van Der Aalst, W.M., 2013. Business process management: a comprehensive survey. ISRN Software Engineering, 2013. Ver?i?, A.T., Ver?i?, D. and Sriramesh, K., 2012. Internal communication: Definition, parameters, and the future. Public relations review, 38(2), pp.223-230. Weibach, R., 2013. How business departments manage the requirements engineering process in information systems projects in small and medium enterprises. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 10. Weske, M., 2012. Business process management architectures. In Business Process Management (pp. 333-371). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Wiegers, K. and Beatty, J., 2013. Software requirements. Pearson Education. Zach, O. and Erik Munkvold, B., 2012. Identifying reasons for ERP system customization in SMEs: a multiple case study. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 25(5), pp.462-478

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Public Examination Should Not Be Abolished free essay sample

While several states are implementing some form of standards-based reform, there is very little empirical evidence to prove that standards, assessment, and high-stakes accountability programs are effective in improving public schools. In many states, such as California, attempts to implement standards-based reform are inconsistently or carelessly aligned with quality research. The following are some of the shortcomings of standards-based reform. 1. Recent reports on the standards-based reform movement in New York suggest that in many schools the careless implementation of standards and assessment may have negative consequences for students. Vague and unclear standards in several subject areas in several states complicate matters and do not serve as concrete standards defining what students should know and be able to do. 3. Top-down standards imposed by the federal or state government are also problematic. They impose content specifications without taking into account the different needs, opportunities to learn, and skills that may be appropriate for specific districts or regions. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Examination Should Not Be Abolished or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Table 1: Advantages of SBA compared with external examinations Point Characteristics of SBA Characteristics of Exams Scope Extends the range and diversity of assessment collection opportunities, task types and assessors Much narrower range of assessment opportunities: less diverse assessment; one exam per year Authenticity Assessment done by students own teacher; less possibility of cheating as teacher knows student capabilities; assessments more likely to be realistic Removes assessment entirely from teaching and learning; stressful conditions may lead to students not demonstrating real capacities Validity Improves validity through assessing factors that cannot be included in public exam settings Limits validity by limiting scope of assessment, e. g. difficult to assess interaction skills in exam environment Reliability Improves reliability by having more than one assessment by a teacher who is familiar with the student; allows for multiple opportunities for assessor reflection/standardisation Even with double marking, examiners judgments can be affected by various factors (task difficulty, topic, interest level, tiredness, etc); little opportunity for assessor reflection / review Fairness Fairness is achieved by following commonly-agreed processes, outcomes and standards; teacher assumptions about students and their oral language levels is made explicit through collaborative sharing and discussion with other teachers Fairness can only be achieved by treating everyone the same, i. e. setting the same task at the same time for all students. Feedback Students can receive constructive feedback immediately after the assessment has finished, hence improving learning The only feedback is usually a grade at the end of the course; no opportunities for interaction with assessor; no chance to ask how to improve Positive washback (beneficial influence on teaching and learning) Ongoing assessment encourages students to work consistently; provides important data for evaluation of teaching and assessment practices in general Examination is purely summative, and does not serve any teaching-related purpose; effects on teaching and learning may even be negative; may encourage teaching to the test and a focus on exam technique, rather than outcomes. Teacher and student empowerment Teachers and students become part of the assessment process; collaboration and sharing of expertise take place within and across schools Teachers play little to no role in assessment of their students and have no opportunity to share their expertise or knowledge of their students; students treated as numbers Professional development Builds teacher assessment skills, which can be transferred to other areas of the curriculum Teachers have no opportunity to build their assessment skills; get little or no feedback on how to improve as teachers